If you live in Seoul then you should be familiar with one and only transportation card T-Money.  The Smart Card system has been used in Metropolitan Seoul for decade and finally in 2011 was integrated in Daejeon’s public transit.  The card can be used on city bus, subway, taxi and also as a pre-paid card at chain stores including fast food restaurants and coffee shops.

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  • Where to buy?

T-Money Card is available for purchase at most subway stations and 24-hour convenience stores.  Just look for the T-Money logo outside of a store.  Also available at post offices and selected banks.  The card costs 2,500 won.

  • Recharge

You can top up your T-Money card at most 24-hour convenience stores.  Make sure you have cash available as they do not take credit card for recharging.  You can also use ATM machines at your bank and transfer the amount from your bank account to T-Money Card.  Not all ATM machines provide recharging service.

  • For Travelers

1) Seoul City Pass

Available at tourist information centers, the city pass allows you to ride most public transit in Seoul Capital Area. The card also lets you hop on a Seoul city tour bus.

2) Seoul City Pass Plus

Other than 5% discount on Seoul city tour bus, I am not sure if there are any other benefit for using the plus card.  This one costs 500 won more than regular city pass.

3) Single-Use Card

Only available in Seoul area, the one-time use card replaced old passes made of paper.  Card can be purchased at the machines in subway stations and can also be returned for a refund of the deposit that was included in the price.  Unfortunately, using this card will not allow you to transfer from subway to buses and vice versa.

References:
T-Money
Wikipedia Korea
Daejeon Metropolitan Express Transit Corporation
Seoul City Pass